Run for Leprosy

•March 22, 2015 • Leave a Comment

Kesan dan pesan saya dalam mengikuti acara #RunForLeprosy2015 ini antara lain fun , innovative acaranya seru juga ada dj , mc , aerobic. Para peserta juga seru” , semua antusias selama acara dari awal sampai akhir.Di garis finish kami diberikan banyak minuman dan medali.

penyakit kusta itu ditandai dengan gejala infeksi yang terjadi pada jaringan saraf dan kulit, biasanya penyakit ini disebabkan bakteri mycrobacteriym leprae. Sampai sekarang masih belum ada obatnya, jadi disarankan agar kita menjaga kebersihan diri sendiri.

Harus berperanya pemerintah terhadap penyakit ini, diadakanya Event event seperti Run For Leprosy yang menyenangkan,sehat dan beredukasi terhadap penyakit kusta. Sosialisai juga dapat dilakukan melalui internal Universitas dan sekolah.

Multimedia – Storyboard

•April 20, 2014 • Leave a Comment

SIUPSIUP1

http://www.binus.ac.id/

http://bm3.binus.ac.id/

Programming language CH 16

•June 28, 2013 • Leave a Comment

2.What are the two parts of a compound term?

  • A compound term is composed of two parts, a functor and an ordered list of parameter

5. What are the antecedents? Consequent?

  • The right side of a clausal form proposition is called the antecendent. The left side is called the consequent because it is the consequence of the truth antecendent

7. What are the forms of Horn clauses?

  • Horn clauses can be in only two forms: they have either a single atomic proposition on the left side or an empty left side.

8. What is the basis concept of declarative semantics?

  • The basic concept of this semantics is that there is a simple way to determine the meaning of each statement, and it does not depend on how the statement might be used to solve a problem

10. What are the three forms of a Prolog term?

  • constant, a variable, or a structure

11. What is an uninstantiated variable?

  • variable that has not been assigned a value

Problem Set :

1. ”All predicate calculus propositions can be algorithmically converted to clausal form”. Is this statement true or false? Explain

  • The statement is true. this was proven by Nilsson (1971) by using a simple conversion algorithm

2. Describe how a logic programming language is different from a general programming language

  • Logical programming language uses a form of symbolic logic, the syntax of logic programming logic is remarkably different from that of the imperative and functional languages.

Programming language CH 15

•June 28, 2013 • Leave a Comment
Review Questions

2. What does a lambda expression specify?
The predicate function is often given as a lambda expression, which in ML is defined exactly like a function, except with the fn reserved word, instead of fun, and of course the lambda expression is nameless.

5. Explain why QUOTE is needed for a parameter that is a data list.
To avoid evaluating a parameter, it is first given as a parameter to the primitive function QUOTE, which simply returns it without change.

6. What is a simple list?
A list which membership of a given atom in a given list that does not include sublists.

7. What does the abbreviation REPL stand for?
REPL stand for read-evaluate-print loop.

11. What are the two forms of DEFINE?
The simplest form of DEFINE is one used to bind a name to the value of an expression. This form is
(DEFINE symbol expression)
The general form of such a DEFINE is
(DEFINE (function_name parameters)
(expression)
)

13. Why are CAR and CDR so named?
The names of the CAR and CDR functions are peculiar at best. The origin of these names lies in the first implementation of LISP, which was on an IBM 704 computer. The 704’s memory words had two fields, named decrement and address, that were used in various operand addressing strategies. Each of
these fields could store a machine memory address. The 704 also included two machine instructions, also named CAR (contents of the address part of a register) and CDR (contents of the decrement part of a register), that extracted the associated fields. It was natural to use the two fields to store the two pointers
of a list node so that a memory word could neatly store a node. Using these conventions, the CAR and CDR instructions of the 704 provided efficient list selectors. The names carried over into the primitives of all dialects of LISP.

18. What is tail recursion? Why is it important to define functions that use recursion to specify repetition to be tail recursive?
A function is tail recursive if its recursive call is the last operation in the function. This means that the return value of the recursive call is the return value of the nonrecursive call to the function. It is important to specify repetition to be tail recursive because it is more efficient(increase the efficiency).

19. Why were imperative features added to most dialects of LISP?
LISP began as a pure functional language but soon acquired some important imperative features to increased its execution efficiency.

26. What is type inferencing, as used in ML?
Type inference refers to the automatic deduction of the type of an expression in a programming language. If some, but not all, type annotations are already present it is referred to as type reconstruction.

29. What is a curried function?
Curried functions a function which a new functions can be constructed from them by partial evaluation.

30. What does partial evaluation mean?
Partial evaluation means that the function is evaluated with actual parameters for one or more of the leftmost formal parameters.

32. What is the use of the evaluation environment table?
A table called the evaluation environment stores the names of all implicitly and explicitly declared identifiers in a program, along with their types. This is like a run-time symbol table.

33. Explain the process of currying.
The process of currying replaces a function with more than one parameter with a function with one parameter that returns a function that takes the other parameters of the initial function.

Problem Set

8. How is the functional operator pipeline ( |> ) used in F#?
The pipeline operator is a binary operator that sends the value of its left operand, which is an expression, to the last parameter of the function call, which is the right operand. It is used to chain together function calls while flowing the data being processed to each call.

9. What does  the following Scheme function do?
(define ( y s lis)
(cond
(( null? lis) ‘ () )
((equal? s (car lis)) lis)
(else (y s (cdr lis)))
))
y returns the given list with leading elements removed up to but not including the first occurrence of the first given parameter.

10.What does  the following Scheme function do?
(define ( x lis)
(cond
(( null? lis) 0 )
(( not(list? (car lis)))
(cond
((eq? (car lis) #f) (x (cdr lis)))
(else (+1 (x (cdr lis))))))
(else (+ (x (car lis))  (x (cdr lis))))
x returns the number of non-#f atoms in the given list

Concepts of Programming Languages Assignment – Chapter 14

Review Questions

1. Define exception, exception handler, raising an exception, disabling an exception, continuation, finalization, and built-in exception.
An exception is an unusual event that is detectable by either hardware or software and that may require special processing. The special processing that may be required when an exception is detected is called exception handling. The processing is done by a code unit or segment called an exception handler. An exception is raised when its associated event occurs. In some situations, it may be desirable to ignore certain hardware-detectable exceptions—for example, division by zero—for a time. This action would be done by disabling the exception. After an exception handler executes, either control can transfer to somewhere in the program outside of the handler code or
Program execution can simply terminate. We term this the question of control continuation after handler execution, or simply continuation. In some situations, it is necessary to complete some computation regardless of how subprogram execution terminates. The ability to specify such a computation is called finalization. Built-in exceptions have a built-in meaning, it is generally inadvisable to use these to signal program-specific error conditions.  Instead we introduce a new exception using an exception declaration, and signal it using a raise expression when a run-time violation occurs.  That way we can associate specific exceptions with specific pieces of code, easing the process of tracking down the source of the error.

7. Where are unhandled exceptions propagated in Ada if raised in a subprogram?
A block? A package body? A task?
When an exception is raised in a block, in either its declarations or executable statements, and the block has no handler for it, the exception is propagated to the next larger enclosing static scope, which is the code that “called” it. The point to which the exception is propagated is just after the end of the block in which it occurred, which is its “return” point. When an exception is raised in a package body and the package body has no handler for the exception, the exception is propagated to the declaration section of the unit containing the package declaration. If the package happens to be a library unit (which is separately compiled), the program is terminated.
If an exception occurs at the outermost level in a task body (not in a nested block) and the task contains a handler for the exception, that handler is executed and the task is marked as being completed. If the task does not have a handler for the exception, the task is simply marked as being completed; the exception is not propagated. The control mechanism of a task is too complex to lend itself to a reasonable and simple answer to the question of where its unhandled exceptions should be propagated.

10. What are the four exceptions defined in the Standard package of Ada?
The four exception defined in the standard package of Ada are Constraint_Error, Program_Error, Storage_Error, Tasking_Error

11. What is the use of suppress pragma in Ada?
An Ada pragma is a directive to the compiler. Certain run-time checks that are parts of the built-in exceptions can be disabled in Ada programs by use of the Suppress pragma, the simple form of which is pragma Suppress(check_name)
where check_name is the name of a particular exception check. The Suppress pragma can appear only in declaration sections. When it appears, the specified check may be suspended in the associated block or program unit of which the declaration section is a part. Explicit raises are not affected by Suppress. Although it is not required, most Ada compilers implement the Suppress pragma.

13. Describe three problems with Ada’s exception handling.
There are several problems with Ada’s exception handling. One problem is the propagation model, which allows exceptions to be propagated to an outer scope in which the exception is not visible. Also, it is not always possible to determine the origin of propagated exceptions. Another problem is the inadequacy of exception handling for tasks. For example, a task that raises an exception but does not handle it simply dies. Finally, when support for object-oriented programming was added in Ada 95, its exception handling was not extended to deal with the new constructs. For example, when several objects of a class are created and used in a block and one of them propagates an exception, it is impossible to determine which one raised the exception.

14. What is the name of all C++ exception handlers?
Each catch function is an exception handler. A catch function can have only a single formal parameter, which is similar to a formal parameter in a function definition in C++, including the possibility of it being an ellipsis (. . .). A handler with an ellipsis formal parameter is the catch-all handler; it is enacted for any raised exception if no appropriate handler was found. The formal parameter also can be a naked type specifier, such as float, as in a function prototype. In such a case, the only purpose of the formal parameter is to make the handler uniquely identifiable. When information about the exception is to be passed to the handler, the formal parameter includes a variable name that is used for that purpose. Because the class of the parameter can be any user-defined class, the parameter can include as many data members as are
necessary.

15. Which standard libraries define and throw the exception out_of_range in C++?
The exception out_of_range in C++ thrown by library container classes

16. Which standard libraries define and throw the exception overflow_error in C++?
the exception overflow_error in C++ thrown by math library functions

19. State the similarity between the exception handling mechanism in C++ and Ada
In some ways, the C++ exception-handling mechanism is similar to that of Ada. For example, unhandled exceptions in functions are propagated to the function’s caller.

20. State the differences between the exception handling mechanism in C++ and Ada
There are no predefined hardware-detectable exceptions that can be handled by the user, and exceptions are not named. Exceptions are connected to handlers through a parameter type in which the formal parameter may be omitted. The type of the formal parameter of a handler determines the condition under which it is called but may have nothing whatsoever to do with the nature of the raised exception.

24. What is the difference between checked and unchecked exceptions in Java?
Exceptions of class Error and RuntimeException and their descendants are called unchecked exceptions. All other exceptions are called checked exceptions. Unchecked exceptions are never a concern of the compiler. However, the compiler ensures that all checked exceptions a method can throw are either listed in its throws clause or handled in the method. Note that checking this at compile time differs from C++, in which it is done at run time. The reason why exceptions of the classes Error and RuntimeException and their descendants are unchecked is that any method could throw them. A program can catch unchecked exceptions, but it is not required.

26. How can an exception handler be written in Java so that it handles any exception?
The exception handlers of Java have the same form as those of C++, except that every catch must have a parameter and the class of the parameter must be a descendant of the predefined class Throwable. The syntax of the try construct in Java is exactly as that of C++, except for the finally clause.

28. What is the purpose of Java finally clause?
A finally clause is placed at the end of the list of handlers just after a complete try construct. The semantics of this construct is as follows: If the try clause throws no exceptions, the finally clause is executed before execution continues after the try construct. If the try clause throws an exception and it is caught by a following handler, the finally clause is executed after the handler completes its execution. If the try clause throws an exception but it is not caught by a handler following the try construct, the finally clause is executed before the exception is propagated

Problem Set

1 . What mechanism did early programming languages provide to detect or attempt to deal with errors?
Early programming languages were designed and implemented in such a way that the user program
could neither detect nor attempt to deal with such errors. In these languages, the occurrence of such an error simply causes the program to be terminated and control to be transferred to the operating system. The typical operating system reaction to a run-time error is to display a diagnostic message, which may be meaningful and therefore useful, or highly cryptic. After displaying the message, the program is terminated.

2. Describe the approach for the detection of subscript range errors used in C and Java.
Java compilers usually generate code to check the correctness of every subscript expression (they do not generate such code when it can be determined at compile time that a subscript expression cannot have an out-of-range value, for example, if the subscript is a literal).
In C, subscript ranges are not checked because the cost of such checking was (and still is) not believed to be worth the benefit of detecting such errors. In some compilers for some languages, subscript range checking can be selected (if not turned on by default) or turned off (if it is on by default) as desired in the program or in the command that executes the compiler.

5. From a textbook on FORTRAN, determine how exception handling is done in FORTRAN programs.
For example, a Fortran “Read” statement can intercept inputerrors and end-of-file conditions, both of which are detected by the input device hardware. In both cases, the Read statement can specify the label of some statement in the user program that deals with the condition. In the case of the end-of-file, it is clear that the condition is not always considered an error. In most cases, it is nothing more than a signal that one kind of processing is completed and another kind must begin. In spite of the obvious difference between end-of-file and events that are always errors, such as a failed input process, Fortran handles both situations with the same mechanism.

6. In languages without exception-handling facilities, it is common to have most subprograms include an “error” parameter, which can be set to some value representing “OK” or some other value representing “error in procedure”. What advantage does a linguistic exception-handling facility like that of Ada have over this method?
There are several advantages of a linguistic mechanism for handling exceptions, such as that found in Ada, over simply using a flag error parameter in all subprograms. One advantage is that the code to test the flag after every call is eliminated. Such testing makes programs longer and harder to read. Another advantage is that exceptions can be propagated farther than one level of control in a uniform and implicit way. Finally, there is the advantage that all programs use a uniform method for dealing with unusual circumstances, leading to enhanced readability.

7. In a language without exception handling facilities, we could send an error-handling procedure as a parameter to each procedure that can detect errors that must be handled. What disadvantages are there to this method?
There are several disadvantages of sending error handling subprograms to other subprograms. One is that it may be necessary to send several error handlers to some subprograms, greatly complicating both the writing and execution of calls. Another is that there is no method of propagating exceptions, meaning that they must all be handled locally. This complicates exception handling, because it requires more attention to handling in more places.

Programming language CH 14

•June 28, 2013 • Leave a Comment

Review question

1. Define exception, exception handler, raising an exception, disabling an exception, continuation, finalization, and built-in exception.
Answer: An exception is an unusual event that is detectable by either hardware or software and that may require special processing. The special processing that may be required when an exception is detected is called exception handling. The processing is done by a code unit or segment called an exception handler. An exception is raised when its associated event occurs. In some situations, it may be desirable to ignore certain hardware-detectable exceptions—for example, division by zero—for a time. This action would be done by disabling the exception. After an exception handler executes, either control can transfer to somewhere in the program outside of the handler code or program execution can simply terminate. We term this the question of control continuation after handler execution, or simply continuation. In some situations, it is necessary to complete some computation regardless of how subprogram execution terminates. The ability to specify such a computation is called finalization. Built-in exceptions have a built-in meaning, it is generally inadvisable to use these to signal program-specific error conditions.  Instead we introduce a new exception using an exception declaration, and signal it using a raise expression when a run-time violation occurs.  That way we can associate specific exceptions with specific pieces of code, easing the process of tracking down the source of the error.

2. When is an exception thrown or raised?
Answer: The exception thrown or raised when there is throw clause of a method lists that have checked exception which could throw and does not handle.

10. What are the four exceptions defined in the Standard package of Ada?
Answer: The four exception defined in the standard package of Ada are Constraint_Error, Program_Error, Storage_Error, Tasking_Error

11. What is the use of suppress pragma in Ada?
Answer: An Ada pragma is a directive to the compiler. Certain run-time checks that are parts of the built-in exceptions can be disabled in Ada programs by use of the Suppress pragma, the simple form of which is pragma Suppress(check_name) where check_name is the name of a particular exception check. The Suppress pragma can appear only in declaration sections. When it appears, the specified check may be suspended in the associated block or program unit of which the declaration section is a part. Explicit raises are not affected by Suppress. Although it is not required, most Ada compilers implement the Suppress pragma.

13. Describe three problems with Ada’s exception handling.
Answer: There are several problems with Ada’s exception handling. One problem is the propagation model, which allows exceptions to be propagated to an outer scope in which the exception is not visible. Also, it is not always possible to determine the origin of propagated exceptions. Another problem is the inadequacy of exception handling for tasks. For example, a task that raises an exception but does not handle it simply dies. Finally, when support for object-oriented programming was added in Ada 95, its exception handling was not extended to deal with the new constructs. For example, when several objects of a class are created and used in a block and one of them propagates an exception, it is impossible to determine which one raised the exception.

14. What is the name of all C++ exception handlers?
Answer: Each catch function is an exception handler. A catch function can have only a single formal parameter, which is similar to a formal parameter in a function definition in C++, including the possibility of it being an ellipsis (. . .). A handler with an ellipsis formal parameter is the catch-all handler; it is enacted for any raised exception if no appropriate handler was found. The formal parameter also can be a naked type specifier, such as float, as in a function prototype. In such a case, the only purpose of the formal parameter is to make the handler uniquely identifiable. When information about the exception is to be passed to the handler, the formal parameter includes a variable name that is used for that purpose. Because the class of the parameter can be any user-defined class, the parameter can include as many data members as are necessary.

15. Which standard libraries define and throw the exception out_of_range in C++?
Answer: The exception out_of_range in C++ thrown by library container classes

16. Which standard libraries define and throw the exception overflow_error in C++?
Answer: the exception overflow_error in C++ thrown by math library functions

19. State the similarity between the exception handling mechanism in C++ and Ada
Answer: In some ways, the C++ exception-handling mechanism is similar to that of Ada. For example, unhandled exceptions in functions are propagated to the function’s caller.

20. State the differences between the exception handling mechanism in C++ and Ada
Answer: There are no predefined hardware-detectable exceptions that can be handled by the user, and exceptions are not named. Exceptions are connected to handlers through a parameter type in which the formal parameter may be omitted. The type of the formal parameter of a handler determines the condition under which it is called but may have nothing whatsoever to do with the nature of the raised exception.

24. What is the difference between checked and unchecked exceptions in Java?
Answer: Exceptions of class Error and RuntimeException and their descendants are called unchecked exceptions. All other exceptions are called checked exceptions. Unchecked exceptions are never a concern of the compiler. However, the compiler ensures that all checked exceptions a method can throw are either listed in its throws clause or handled in the method. Note that checking this at compile time differs from C++, in which it is done at run time. The reason why exceptions of the classes Error and RuntimeException and their descendants are unchecked is that any method could throw them. A program can catch unchecked exceptions, but it is not required.

26. How can an exception handler be written in Java so that it handles any exception?
Answer: The exception handlers of Java have the same form as those of C++, except that every catch must have a parameter and the class of the parameter must be a descendant of the predefined class Throw-able. The syntax of the try construct in Java is exactly as that of C++, except for the finally clause.

28. What is the purpose of Java finally clause?
Answer: A finally clause is placed at the end of the list of handlers just after a complete try construct. The semantics of this construct is as follows: If the try clause throws no exceptions, the finally clause is executed before execution continues after the try construct. If the try clause throws an exception and it is caught by a following handler, the finally clause is executed after the handler completes its execution. If the try clause throws an exception but it is not caught by a handler following the try construct, the finally clause is executed before the exception is propagated

Problem Set

1 . What mechanism did early programming languages provide to detect or attempt to deal with errors?
Answer:
Early programming languages were designed and implemented in such a way that the user program could neither detect nor attempt to deal with such errors. In these languages, the occurrence of such an error simply causes the program to be terminated and control to be transferred to the operating system. The typical operating system reaction to a run-time error is to display a diagnostic message, which may be meaningful and therefore useful, or highly cryptic. After displaying the message, the program is terminated.

2. Describe the approach for the detection of subscript range errors used in C and Java.
Answer:
Java compilers usually generate code to check the correctness of every subscript expression (they do not generate such code when it can be determined at compile time that a subscript expression cannot have an out-of-range value, for example, if the subscript is a literal). In C, subscript ranges are not checked because the cost of such checking was (and still is) not believed to be worth the benefit of detecting such errors. In some compilers for some languages, subscript range checking can be selected (if not turned on by default) or turned off (if it is on by default) as desired in the program or in the command that executes the compiler.

5. From a textbook on FORTRAN, determine how exception handling is done in FORTRAN programs.
Answer:
For example, a Fortran “Read” statement can intercept input errors and end-of-file conditions, both of which are detected by the input device hardware. In both cases, the Read statement can specify the label of some statement in the user program that deals with the condition. In the case of the end-of-file, it is clear that the condition is not always considered an error. In most cases, it is nothing more than a signal that one kind of processing is completed and another kind must begin. In spite of the obvious difference between end-of-file and events that are always errors, such as a failed input process, Fortran handles both situations with the same mechanism.

6. In languages without exception-handling facilities, it is common to have most subprograms include an “error” parameter, which can be set to some value representing “OK” or some other value representing “error in procedure”. What advantage does a linguistic exception-handling facility like that of Ada have over this method?
Answer:
There are several advantages of a linguistic mechanism for handling exceptions, such as that found in Ada, over simply using a flag error parameter in all subprograms. One advantage is that the code to test the flag after every call is eliminated. Such testing makes programs longer and harder to read. Another advantage is that exceptions can be propagated farther than one level of control in a uniform and implicit way. Finally, there is the advantage that all programs use a uniform method for dealing with unusual circumstances, leading to enhanced readability.

7. In a language without exception handling facilities, we could send an error-handling procedure as a parameter to each procedure that can detect errors that must be handled. What disadvantages are there to this method?
Answer:
There are several disadvantages of sending error handling subprograms to other subprograms. One is that it may be necessary to send several error handlers to some subprograms, greatly complicating both the writing and execution of calls. Another is that there is no method of propagating exceptions, meaning that they must all be handled locally. This complicates exception handling, because it requires more attention to handling in more places.

Programming language CH 13

•June 28, 2013 • Leave a Comment

Review Questions

1. What are the three possible levels of concurrency in programs?
Concurrency in software execution can occur at four different levels: instruction level (executing two or more machine instructions simultaneously), statement level (executing two or more high-level language statements simultaneously), unit level (executing two or more subprogram units simultaneously), and program level (executing two or more programs simultaneously).

2. Describe the logical architecture of an SIMD computer.
In an SIMD computer, each processor has its own local memory. One processor controls the operation of the other processors. Because all of the processors, except the controller, execute the same instruction at the same time, no synchronization is required in the software. Perhaps the most widely used
SIMD machines are a category of machines called vector processors. They have groups of registers that store the operands of a vector operation in which the same instruction is executed on the whole group of operands simultaneously. Originally, the kinds of programs that could most benefit from this architecture were in scientific computation, an area of computing that is often the target of multiprocessor machines. However, SIMD processors are now used for a variety of application areas, among them graphics and video processing. Until recently, most supercomputers were vector processors.

3. Describe the logical architecture of an MIMD computer.
Computers that have multiple processors that operate independently but whose operations can be synchronized are called Multiple-Instruction Multiple- Data (MIMD) computers. Each processor in an MIMD computer executes its own instruction stream. MIMD computers can appear in two distinct configurations: distributed and shared memory systems. The distributed MIMD machines, in which each processor has its own memory, can be either built in a single chassis or distributed, perhaps over a large area. The shared-memory MIMD machines obviously must provide some means of synchronization to prevent memory access clashes. Even distributed MIMD machines require synchronization to operate together on single programs. MIMD computers, which are more general than SIMD computers, support unit-level concurrency. The primary focus of this chapter is on language design for shared memory MIMD computers, which are often called multiprocessors.

4. What level of program concurrency is best supported by SIMD computers?
Statement-level concurrency

5. What level of program concurrency is best supported by SIMD computers?
Unit-level concurrency

6. Describe the logical architecture of a vector processor.
Vector processor have groups of registers that store the operands of a vector operation in which the same instruction is executed on the whole group of operands simultaneously. Originally, the kinds of programs that could most benefit from this architecture were in scientific computation, an area of computing that is often the target of multiprocessor machines.

7. What is the difference between physical and logical concurrency?
There are two distinct categories of concurrent unit control. The most natural category of concurrency is that in which, assuming that more than one processor is available, several program units from the same program literally execute simultaneously. This is physical concurrency. A slight relaxation of this concept of concurrency allows the programmer and the application software to assume that there are multiple processors providing actual concurrency, when in fact the actual execution of programs is taking place in interleaved fashion on a single processor. This is logical concurrency.

8. what is the work of a scheduler?
A run-time system program called a scheduler manages the sharing of processors among the tasks.

34. What does the Java sleep method do?
The sleep method has a single parameter, which is the integer number of milliseconds that the caller of sleep wants the thread to be blocked. After the specified number of milliseconds has passed, the thread will be put in the task-ready queue. Because there is no way to know how long a thread will be in the task-ready queue before it runs, the parameter to sleep is the minimum amount of time the thread will not be in execution. The sleep method can throw an InterruptedException, which must be handled in the method that calls sleep.

35. what does the Java yield method do?
The yield method, which takes no parameters, is a request from the running thread to surrender the processor voluntarily. The thread is put immediately in the task-ready queue, making it ready to run. The scheduler then chooses the highest-priority thread from the task-ready queue. If there are no other ready threads with priority higher than the one that just yielded the processor, it may also be the next thread to get the processor.

36. what does the Java join method do?
The join method is used to force a method to delay its execution until the run method of another thread has completed its execution. join is used when the processing of a method cannot continue until the work of the other thread is complete.

37. What does the Java interrupt method do?
The interrupt method is one way to communicate to a thread that it should stop. This method does not stop the thread; rather, it sends the thread a message that actually just sets a bit in the thread object, which can be checked by the thread. The bit is checked with the predicate method, isInterrupted. This is not a complete solution, because the thread one is attempting to interrupt may be sleeping or waiting at the time the interrupt method is called, which means that it will not be checking to see if it has been interrupted. For these situations, the interrupt method also throws an exception, InterruptedException, which also causes the thread to awaken (from sleeping or waiting). So, a thread can periodically check to see whether it has been interrupted and if so, whether it can terminate. The thread cannot miss the interrupt, because if it was asleep or waiting when the interrupt occurred, it
will be awakened by the interrupt.

42. What kind of Java object is a monitor?
In Java, a monitor can be implemented in a class designed as an abstract data type, with the shared data being the type. Accesses to objects of the class are controlled by adding the synchronized modifier to the access methods.

47. How are explicit locks supported in Java?
Java 5.0 introduced explicit locks as an alternative to synchronized method and blocks, which provide implicit locks. The Lock interface declares the lock, unlock, and tryLock methods. The predefined ReentrantLock class implements the Lock interface. To lock a block of code, the following idiom can be used:
Lock lock = new ReentrantLock();
. . .
Lock.lock();
try {
// The code that accesses the shared data
} finally {
Lock.unlock();
}

48. What kinds of methods can run in a C# thread?
Rather than just methods named run, as in Java, any C# method can run in its own thread.

55. What is Concurrent ML?
Concurrent ML (CML) is an extension to ML that includes a form of threads and a form of synchronous message passing to support concurrency. The language is completely described in Reppy (1999).

59. Who developed the monitor concept?
The monitor concept is developed and its implementation in Concurrent Pascal is described by Brinch Hansen (1977)

Problem Set

1 . Explain why a race condition can create problems for  a system.
a race condition creates problem because when a race condition happens two or more tasks are racing to use the shared resource and the behavior of the program depends on which task arrives first (and wins the race).

2. What are the different ways to handle deadlock?
When deadlock occurs, assuming that only two program units are causing the deadlock, one of the involved program units should be gracefully terminated, thereby allowed the other to continue.

3. Busy waiting is a method whereby a task waits for a given event by continuously checking for that event to occur. What is the main problem with this approach?
The main problem with busy waiting is that machine cycles are wasted in the process.

4. In the producer-consumer example of Section 13.3, suppose that we incorrectly replaced the release(access) in the consumer process with wait(access). What woud be the result of this error on execution of the system?
Deadlock would occur if the release(access) were replaced by a wait(access) in the consumer process, because instead of relinquishing access control, the consumer would wait for control that it already had.

Programming language CH 12

•June 28, 2013 • Leave a Comment

2. What are the problems associated with programming using abstract data types?

  • In nearly all cases, the features and capabilities of the existing type are not quite right for the new use.
  • The type definitions are all independent and are at the same level.

4. What is message protocol?
The entire collection of methods of an object is called the message protocol, or message interface, of the object.

5. What is an overriding method?
An overriding method is a method that provide an operation in the subclass that is similar to one in the parent class, but is customized for objects of the subclass. For example, a parent class, Bird, might have a draw method that draws a generic bird. A subclass of Bird named Waterfowl could override the draw method inherited from Bird to draw a generic waterfowl, perhaps a duck.

7. What is dynamic dispatch?
Dynamic dispatch is the third characteristic (after abstract data types and inheritance) of object-oriented programming language which is a kind of polymorhphism provided by the dynamic binding of messages to method definitions.

8. What is an abstract method? What is an abstract class?
For example, suppose a program defined a Building class and a collection of subclasses for specific types of buildings, for instance, French_Gothic. It probably would not make sense to have an implemented draw method in Building. But because all of its descendant classes should have such an implemented method, the protocol (but not the body) of that method is included in Building. Such a method is often called an abstract method ( pure virtual method in C++). A class that includes at least one abstract method is called an abstract class (abstract base class in C++).

10. What is an inner class?
Inner classes are non-static classes that are nested directly in another class.

12. From where are Smalltalk objects allocated?
Smalltalk objects are allocated from the heap and are referenced through reference variables, which are implicitly dereferenced.

15. What kind of inheritance, single or multiple, does Smalltalk support?
Smalltalk supports single inheritance; it does not allow multiple inheritance.

19. How are C++ heap-allocated objects deallocated?
C++ heap-allocated objects are deallocated using destructor.

29. Does Objective-C support multiple inheritance?
No Objective-C doesn’t support it. (It supports only single inheritance).

33. What is the purpose of an Objective-C category?
The purpose of an Objective-C category is to add certain functionalities to different classes and also to provide some of the benefits of multiple inheritance, without the naming collisions that could occur if modules did not require module names on their functions.

38. What is boxing?
Boxing is primitive values in Java 5.0+ which is implicitly coerced when they are put in object context. This coercion converts the primitive value to an object of the wrapper class of the primitive value’s type.

39. How are Java objects deallocated?
By implicitly calling a finalizemethod when the garbage collector is about to reclaim the storage occupied by the object.


Problem Set

1 . What important part of support for inheritance is missing in Java?
Java does not support the private and protected derivations of C++. One can surmise that the Java designers believed that subclasses should be subtypes, which they are not when private and protected derivations are supported. Thus, they did not include them.

3. Compare the inheritance of C++ and Java.

  • In Java, all classes inherit from the Object class directly or indirectly. Therefore, there is always a single inheritance tree of classes in Java, and Object class is root of the tree. In Java, if we create a class that doesn’t inherit from any class then it automatically inherits from Object Class. In C++, there is forest of classes; when we create a class that doesn’t inherit from anything, we create a new tree in forest.
  • In Java, members of the grandparent class are not directly accessible.
  • The meaning of protected member access specifier is somewhat different in Java. In Java, protected members of a class “A” are accessible in other class “B” of same package, even if B doesn’t inherit from A (they both have to be in the same package)
  • Java uses extends keyword for inheritence. Unlike C++, Java doesn’t provide an inheritance specifier like public, protected or private. Therefore, we cannot change the protection level of members of base class in Java, if some data member is public or protected in base class then it remains public or protected in derived class. Like C++, private members of base class are not accessible in derived class.
  • Unlike C++, in Java, we don’t have to remember those rules of inheritance which are combination of base class access specifier and inheritance specifier.
  • In Java, methods are virtual by default. In C++, we explicitly use virtual keyword.
  • Java uses a separate keyword interface for interfaces, and abstract keyword for abstract classes and abstract functions.
  • Unlike C++, Java doesn’t support multiple inheritance. A class cannot inherit from more than one class. A class can implement multiple interfaces though.
  • – In C++, default constructor of parent class is automatically called, but if we want to call parametrized constructor of a parent class, we must use Initalizer list. Like C++, default constructor of the parent class is automatically called in Java, but if we want to call parametrized constructor then we must use super to call the parent constructor

5. Compare abstract class and interface in Java.

  • First and major difference between abstract class and interface is that, abstract class is a class while interface is a interface, means by extending abstract class you can not extend another class becauseJava does not support multiple inheritance but you can implement multiple inheritance in Java.
  • Second difference between interface and abstract class in Java is that you can not create non abstract method in interface, every method in interface is by default abstract, but you can create non abstract method in abstract class. Even a class which doesn’t contain any abstract method can be abstract by using abstract keyword.
  • Third difference between abstract class and interface in Java is that abstract class are slightly faster than interface because interface involves a search before calling any overridden method in Java. This is not a significant difference in most of cases but if you are writing a time critical application than you may not want to leave any stone unturned.
  • Fourth difference between abstract class vs interface in Java is that, interface are better suited for Type declaration and abstract class is more suited for code reuse and evolution perspective.
  • Another notable difference between interface and abstract class is that when you add a new method in existing interface it breaks all its implementation and you need to provide an implementation in all clients which is not good. By using abstract class you can provide default implementation in super class.

10. Explain one advantage of inheritance.
Inheritance offers a solution to both the modification problem posed by abstract data type reuse and the program organization problem. If a new abstract data type can inherit the data and functionality of some existing type, and is also allowed to modify some of those entities and add new entities, reuse is greatly facilitated without requiring changes to the reused abstract data type. Programmers can begin with an existing abstract data type and design a modified descendant of it to fit a new problem requirement. Furthermore, inheritance provides a framework for the definition of hierarchies of related classes that can reflect the descendant relationships in the problem space.

12. Compare inheritance and nested classes in C++. Which of these supports an is-a relationship?
Inheritance is where one class (child class) inherits the members of another class (parent class).Nested class is a class declared entirely within the body of another class or interface.

Inheritance does.

17. What are the different options for object destruction in Java?
Finalize is related to C++ destructor. A finalize method is implicitly called when the garbage collector is about to reclaim the storage occupied by the object. The problem with finalize is that the time it will run cannot be forced or even predicted. The alternative to using finalize to reclaim resources held by an object about to be garbage collected is to include a method that does the reclamation. The only problem with this is that all clients of the objects must be aware of this method and remember to call it.

20. Compare the way Smalltalk provides dynamic binding with that of C++.
In C++, the programmer can specify whether static binding or dynamic binding is to be used. Because static binding is faster, this is an advantage for those situations where dynamic binding is not necessary. Furthermore, even the dynamic binding in C++ is fast when compared with that of Smalltalk. Binding a virtual member function call in C++ to a function definition has a fixed cost, regardless of how distant in the inheritance hierarchy the definition appears. Calls to virtual functions require only five more memory references than statically bound calls (Stroustrup, 1988). In Smalltalk, however, messages are always dynamically bound to methods, and the farther away in the inheritance hierarchy the correct method is, the longer it takes. The disadvantage of allowing the user to decide which bindings are static and which are dynamic is that the original design must include these decisions, which may have to be changed later.

21. Compare the support for polymorphism in C# with that of in Objective-C.
In Objective-C, polymorphism is implemented in a way that differs from the way it is done in most other common programming languages. A polymorphic variable is created by declaring it to be of type id. Such a variable can reference any object. The run-time system keeps track of the class of the object to which
an id type variable refers. If a call to a method is made through such a variable, the call is dynamically bound to the correct method, assuming one exists.
To allow dynamic binding of method calls to methods in C#, both the base method and its corresponding methods in derived classes must be specially marked. The base class method must be marked with virtual, as in C++. To make clear the intent of a method in a subclass that has the same name and protocol as a virtual method in an ancestor class, C# requires that such methods be marked override if they are to override the parent class virtual method.

25. Study and explain private and public modifiers in C++. How do those modifiers differ in C#?
C++ includes both classes and structs, which are nearly identical constructs. The only difference is that the default access modifier for class is private, whereas for structs it is public. C# also has structs, but they are very different from those of C++. In C#, structs are, in a sense, lightweight classes. They can have constructors, properties, methods, and data fields and can implement interfaces but do not support inheritance.